Tidwell Papers

General William A. Tidwell’s Research Files

(Catalogued by Surratt Society member William L. Richter of Arizona)

Drawer #

Folder Name

Contents

1

A & IG

Tidwell's notes, in his inimitable handwriting, of the Adjutant and Inspector General's Department at Richmond, which had the initial responsibility for creating the Confederate Signals Service, which in turn created the beginnings of the Secret Line of communications between Richmond, Washington, and Baltimore. Includes a map of the location of the A&IG headquarters in Richmond and an elevation of the building.

1

Adams, A. L.

Owner of the tavern in Newport, Md., accused after the war of sheltering Booth and Herold, while they allegedly hid in the woods according to legend. Includes a statement by his employee, James Owens of the incident.

1

Alexander, COL E. P.

A dozen-page typescript of notes from the E. P. Alexander papers of the Southern History Collection, University of North Carolina, relating to prewar, wartime, and postwar experiences of Alexander, Longstreet's artillery commander at Gettysburg.

1

Ambler, MAJ John

An Episcopal minister in the Confederate Quartermaster's corps, mentions monetary disbursements and POWs. Several xeroxes from the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.

1

Anderson, BG Joseph R.

Head of Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, he is mentioned in a xeroxed article by Edward R. Crews, "The Industrial Bulwark of the Confederacy."

1

April '65

Three-quarters of a linear inch of letters and reviews of Tidwell's, April '65, including Tidwell's remarks before the Cuyahoga CRT, and xerox copy of William Hanchett's article, "The Happiest Day of His [Lincoln's] Life."

1

Archer, LTC Robert

Notes and papers relating to Archer, from 55 Va Inf, captured and held as POW in various Northern prisons from Johnson's Island to The Old Capitol.

1

Archives

Three lists of various military and diplomatic records available at NARA on microfilm.

1

Arnold, George

A brief hand-written biography of a suspected Confederate courier.

1

Ashland, Virginia

A linear inch and a quarter of documents relating to the history of Ashland and its use as a parole station at the end of the Civil War as related in Tidwell, et al., Come Retribution. Includes lists of parolees and regiments in which they served.

1

Assassination--Ciphers/Codes

Several pieces of the time on how Civil War cyphers work plus correspondence between Tidwell, Hall and Gaddy on the topic.

1

Assassination--Confederate Gov't (3 folders)

The central theme of Come Retribution, an outline of what ought to be said on Confederate Government conspiracy to assassinate Lincoln; articles and speeches by William Hanchett and E. T. Lange and Katherine DeWitt, Jr.; correspondence between Tidwell, Hall, Hanchett, and John Stanton, and lengthy article from New York Herald, May 4, 1865, on Confederate participation in the assassination.

1

Assassination--Conspiracies to Capture or Kill pre April 14, 1865

Timeline for the Kidnap Plot; Correspondence between Tidwell, Hall, Gaddy, Hanchett and others on this topic.

1

Assassination--Conspiracy Theories

Lots of correspondence between Tidwell, Hall, Hanchett, and others with attached records from the time; an interview by Fred Hatch of James O. Hall; Timothy Crouse, "A Conspiracy theory to End All Conspiracy Theories"; Hanchett, "Lincoln's Assassination Revisited"; Hanchett, "Lincoln's Murder: The Single Conspiracy Theory"; and Terry Alford's "Taking Care of Eisenschmil."

1

Assassination--General

A series of xeroxes including meterological conditions of the months of January-April 1865, and Michael Kauffman's article from the April 1990 isue of Blue and Gray magazine, "John Wilkes Booth and the Murder of Abraham Lincoln," plus an excerpt from Sallie A. Putnam, Richmond during the Confederacy, and several other general articles of this type on Lincoln's assassination.

1

Atzerodt, George

A compliation of the three confessions of George Atzerodt to federal officers.

1

Baden, Joseph

Several documents relating to PVT Joseph Baden, aide to Thomas Harbin in 1865 and living at Mrs. Quesenberry's on the Virginia shore near where Booth and Herold arrived in their escape attempt after assassinating Lincoln, Baden was a part of the Confederate Signal Corps.

1

Baker, BG L. C.

Contains an article by Brett F. Woods, "Lincoln's Ace of Spies: Rise and Fall of a Secret Agent: La Fayette [sic] Baker," book announcements on a reprint of History of the U.S. Secret Service, and a piece on the medal awarded one of Baker's underlings for his assistance in capturing the Lincoln conspirators

1

Baltimore, Maryland

A file containing information on the Baltimore Riot against the passage of Federal Volunteers in 1861 and a chronology of events.

Bannon, Father John B.

One page biography of Father Bannon and a chronology of his efforts to stop Union recruitment in Ireland and, along with Confederate diplomat A. Dudley Mann, obtain Papal diplomatic recognition of the Confederacy.

1

Barton

Materials, half a linear inch, on MAJ William Barton, who established the first secret communications line into Maryland for the Confederacy, and later worked for BG John Winder at Richmond. MAJ Barton was the brother of MG Seth Barton, who commanded the part of the Richmond defense force that provided detachments to guard those using the Secret Line in 1865 to kidnap or assassinate Lincoln.

9

Battle of Mechanicsville, Md., April 15, 1865

Mss of the scattering of the Confederate cavalry that was to cover Booth and Herold in their escape after the assassination of Lincoln, publisheded in the Surratt Courier as three installments, April-May-June 1997.

1

Baxley, C. V.

Known as a rabid Confederate sympathizer, Catherine Virginia Baxley spent much time under house arrest with Rose Greenhow or in the Old Capitol Prison. She served as a nurse in Richmond but preferred the adventure of spy and courier work and had one major fault--she could not keep her mouth shut. Several documents of her story.

1

Beltsville, Maryland

Contains a xerox copy of "The History of Beltsville" emphasizing Civil War vignettes.

1

Benjamin, J. P.

Several documents relating to the expenditure of Confederate funds for Secret Service purposes late in the war. Also has a xerox of appropriate pages from Robert Douhat Meade's Judah P. Benjamin.

1

Berry, J. Owens

Xerox copy from the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies of the report of LT J. Owens Berry, who was captured at Ball's Bluff in 1861 and transported eventually to Old Capitol Prison from which he escaped. He reported that Yankee soldiers harrassed him while in captivity and remarked on the excellent behavior of BG Charles Stone, USV, who treated him with much care. Radical Republicans saw to it that Stone was later arrested by Federal authorities for being too lenient with Rebel persons and property.

1

Between the Lines

Xerox copy of Provost Marshal MAJ H. B. Smith's (USV) book, Between the Lines: Secret Service Stories Told Fifty Years After.

1

Black Soldiers

Mostly about the Confederacy's consideration of the use of blacks as soldiers and laborers. Contains the xerox of C. W. Harper's, "The Black Soldier During the U.S. Civil War: From Pariah to Trusted Comrad in Arms," Army Magazine, Sept. 1988.

1

Black, B. S.

Black was a telegraph operator in Montreal who Tidwell feels may have known much about telegraphic money exchanges between the Confederacy and its Canadian operatives.

1

Blackburn, L. P.

The pro-Confederate doctor who sponsored the yellow fever campaign against Northern soldiers and civilians. Contains several items of interest from the time.

1

Blackford Family

LT B. Lewis Blackford was a cartographer of importance in the Confederacy. He mapped several routes by which the Lincoln kidnappers might travel to Richmond, including the Secret Line in King George County. Several maps of interest. Over half inch of materials.

2

Booth Diary

William Hanchett, "Booth's Diary," Richard E. Sloan, "Case of the Missing Pages," and Carroll L. Lucas, et al., Multispectral Analysis of the John Wilkes Booth Pocket Diary, Thomas Eckert's testimony before Congress on the diary, and miscellaneous correspondence by James O. Hall.

2

Booth, John Wilkes--After Garrett's Farm

Papers on the examination of Booth's body back in Washington, D.C., and more modern tales of Booth's escape and survival after Garrett's Farm, Finis Bates, Nate Orlowek, and the attempt to dig up Booth's body to confirm its existence in the grave. Several letters from James O. Hall on these episodes are very instructive.

2

Booth--Associates, CPT Treadwell

Treadwell had an encounter with Booth that was not revealed until a Congressional committee revealed it in 1905. Supposedly, in 1864, Treadwell was told by Booth of a conspiracy being hatched in Canada, but no real details survive. CPT Treadwell reported the encounter to MG John Dix about 6 weeks after it happened.

2

Booth--Childhood

Papers relating to Booth and his family and sweethearts and boyhood friends, but mostly relating to brother Edwin.

2

Booth--Contemporaries' Recollections

Memories of Booth by varied persons who met him and a retelling of the Harper's Ferry hanging of John Brown, which Booth attended and entertained the troops.

2

Booth--Escape Route

(3 folders) Tidwell mss "Where Did Booth Go?," copy of his article "Booth Crosses the Potomac," and research on how it was done; numerous xeroxes from Oldroyd, Eisenschiml; mss speeches delivered by James O. Hall on Booth's escape; investigations of those who helped Booth like Samuel Cox, Elizabeth Quesenberry, and the three Confederates (Bainbridge, Ruggles, Jett, DR Richard Stewart); numerous manuscripts and correspondence from the time; much genealogy; hand-written notes taken by Tidwell and Hall on various topics; The Trappe; Banks O'Dee; Correspondence between Tidwell and Hall and relatives and local historians on Booth's route and those he met along the way.

2

Booth--Escape, Garrett's Farm

(2 Folders) Correspondence between Tidwell and Steve Miller (an expert on the cavalrymen who cornered Booth); xerox of Abraham Lincoln and Boston Corbett; diagram of trajectory of fire when Corbett shot Booth; Original copied statement of LT Luther Baker; Statement of W. D. Newbill; beautiful aerial drawing of how Garrett's Farm must have looked; and xerox copies of many unidentified books and magazine articles excerpted for their tales of Garrett's Farm.

2

Booth--Historians and

Letters between James O. Hall and Tidwell plus a Confederate "Box Code," and some materials on Booth at Harpers' Ferry for John Brown's execution.

2

Booth--Motives

Numerous speculations on what might have motivated Booth to assassinate Lincoln; correpondence between Tidwell, Hall and Hanchett; Tidwell mss on "John Wilkes Booth and John Yates Beall.

2

Booth--Oil Investments

General information on the production of oil in the Civil War era and Booth's role in oil investment through his financier, Joseph H. Simonds.

2

Booth--Photographs and Photographers

Correspondence between Richard J. S. Gutman and James O. Hall revealing that photos of Booth attributed to J. W. Black were actually taken by John G. Case.

2

Booth--Pursuit by Feds

(2 Folders) Correspondence between Tidwell and Steve Miller (an expert on the cavalrymen who cornered Booth); xerox of Abraham Lincoln and Boston Corbett; diagram of trajectory of fire when Corbett shot Booth; Original copied statement of LT Luther Baker;

2

Booth--Timelines and Activities, 1863-1865

Timeline of Booth's movements from Oct. 16, 1864 to Apr. 27, 1865; xerox of Art Loux, John Wilkes Booth--Day by Day; correspondence between Tidwell and James O. Hall on Booth's timeline; where Booth took target practice in Boston; gaps in Booth's whereabouts; Booth's help in tearing up the railroad and burning bridges leading into Baltimore in 1861.

2

Boteler, A. R.

Almost a linear half inch of materials on Virginia politician and active supporter of secret service from the Valley, A. R. Boteler, including family tree and some mss from Duke University. Also item relating briefly to John Yates Beall and others.

2

Bowie, Walter

Nearly a linear inch and a half of materials on one of the premier Maryland Confederate agents and member of the 43 Bn Va Cav., including materials on John H. Waring family (his girlfriend's family), many xeroxes and original documents. Mss by James O. Hall on "The Death of Walter Bowie," and private communications between Tidwell, Hall, and David W. Gaddy and others.

2

Boyle, MAJ Cornelius

Illustrative of Tidwell's use of outside researchers, this file of two linear inches contains parts of the over 30 reports by the certified geneologist, Alycon Trubey Pierce. As written, Pierce's reports not only handle MAJ Boyle, the CSA Provost Marshal at Gordonsville, but also mention various family connections between Boyle, the Greens of Washington, D.C., the Paars of Baltimore, Gautier of Washington oyster house fame, the Maulsbys and Mike O'Laughlen, the McCaffery's of Montreal and CPT Emile Longuemare of St. Louis. Should be consulted when researching any of these names in addition to Boyle's.

2

British

A collection of xerox lives of important English politicians on important diplomatic question of the times, like the HMS Trent Affair: John Viscount Morley's The Life of Richard Coben; Philip Guedalla, The Palmerston Papers: Gladstone and Palmerston; Lord Newton, Lord Lyons.

2

Camp Lee

List of commanders of Camp Lee, a CSA conscript camp, with a brief chronology.

           2, 3

Canadian Links

A series of 10 manila folders, containing materials on life and families of W. W. Cleary, Francis Lewis McChesney, Jacob Thompson, Charles A. Dunham, John Yates Beall, Beverly Tucker, Sanford Conover, James Merritt, COL ------- Steele, The Chicago 60, various consular dispatches, selections from the LC papers of Benjamin Butler concerning attacks on Union installations holding CSA POWs, Sons of Liberty of the Order of American Knights, Kensey Johns Stewart and the Episcopal Church in the Confederacy (2 folders). Tidwell has tremendous interest in Episcopal priests as Confederate secret agents and couriers. Most important is Tidwell's bound timeline of Confederate efforts abroad, primarily in Canada, from the election of 1860 to when Edwin C. Lee leaves Canada in May 1865.

3

Chaffin's Bluff

Various maps and documents on the importance of Chaffin's bluff in the defense of Richmond.

3

City Point

Xerox of documents relating to the explosion at City Point, Va., which blew up the Union supply depot, initiated by CSA Secret Service.

4

Civil War --South--Railroads

Nearly a linear inch of items relating to Civil War railroading, including 7 copies of an unpublished article by Tidwell on the records of the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac RR, another Tidwell article on the Ashland Mystery, about an 1865 battle between Union Cavalry and Confederate troops detailed to guard the Secret Line.

3

Civil War--Artillery/Ordnance

Ranges and penetration statistics of Civil War small arms, amount of ordnance destroyed at Salisbury, NC, 13 April 1865, Civil War machine guns.

3

Civil War--Maryland

Documents and mss relating to the Civil War in Charles and St. Mary's Counties, the training of black regiments at camp Stanton near Benedict, COL John Henry Sothoren for shooting a recruiter for these regiments, and the Freedmen's Bureau in Southern Maryland after the war.

3

Civil War--North--St. Dept.

A printed fiche of US State Department agents, 1789-1906

3

Civil War--North--Union Operations in Va, MD, 1862-1864

Two manila folders copied from the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, primarily emphasizing the Shenandoah Valley in 1862.

4

Civil War--South--Blockade Runners

Mostly xerox copies of dispatches from US consuls on blockade activity at various ports in the CS and Mexico. Includes J. Wilkinson, "The Narrative of a Blockade Runner," 84-195, a brief biography of blockade financier George Trenholm, and a longer article M. Foster Farley, "The Manners of a Prince" 19-25, from a 1982 issue of Civil War Times.

4

Civil War--South--Casualties

Total casualties listed for the war from the Southern Historical Society.

3

Civil War--South--Cavalry Scouts

Mss on E. Pliny Bryan, Channing Smith, B. F. Stringfellow, W. D. Farley, and W. C. Quantrill.

4

Civil War--South--Confed. Naval Privateers, "Destructionists"

Two manila folders containing materials from which Tidwell wrote his chapter "Sage and the Deconstructionists" in April '65, 77-107, emphasizing Bernard J. Sage and the notion of how privateers could operate on land and rivers as well as by sea. Approximately 2 linear inches thick.

3

Civil War--South--Confed. Navy

Some documents from the Stephen Mallory papers at the Univ of NC, a copy of David W. Gaddy's article "Secret Communications of a Confederate Navy Agent," the modern day hunt for the CSS Hunley, and a brief life of ADM Raphael Semmes.

3

Civil War--South--Confederate Army

A list of CSA promotions to General rank in long-hand and from the Confederate Veteran Magazine.

4

Civil War--South--Confederate Civil Service

Contains an article by Paul P. Van Riper and Harry N. Scheiber, "The Confederate Civil Service," 21 pages from the Journal of Southern History, at least two copies of the Little Red Book that listed who served in what position and where in the Confederate government in 1861, and a pair of An Official Guide of the Confederate Government which has the same information for the war. Also 2 maps of Richmond showing government offices.

4

Civil War--South--Confederate Currency

A series of papers on the final Treasure of the Confederacy, value of paper money, the process of obtaining a draft or warrant on the Confederate treasury, and some warrants themselves.

4

Civil War--South--Confederate Postal System

Typescript of 183 pages by Cedric Okell Reynolds, "The History of the Postal System of the Southern Confederacy."

4

Civil War--South--CSA Explosives/Munitions

Contains an article on the Rains brothers by Peggy Robbins, "Bomb Brothers," 40-49, from Civil War Times, Aug 1997; C. L. Bragg, "The Augusta Powder Works: The Confederacy's Manufacturing Triumph," 26-31, Confederate Veteran; Comments on Gabriel Rains from A Confederate War Clerk's Diary; 2 copies of W. Davis Waters, "Deception is the Art of War: Gabriel J. Rains Torpedo Specialist of the Confederacy"; William Davis Waters, "Gabriel J. Rains: Torpedo General of the Confederacy" Unpub. M.A. Thesis, Wake Forrest University, 1971.

4

Civil War--South--CSA Paroles, Virginia

A typescript on defenses of the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers with a map, and parole figures for various posts north of Richmond by CSA regiment with graphs detailing how many surrendered daily and where that made up the last chapter in Come Retribution.

3

Civil War--South--CSA Special Orders

From the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, special Orders No. 225 and 226, 1861 series, on various appointments and changes of duty stations, with those underlined affecting scout or secret service organizations

3

Civil War--South--CSA Special Units/Scouts

A xerox of various pages of 1864 regimental and brigade reorganizations from the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies with a note in Tidwell's hand as to which scouts he was interested in.

3

Civil War--South--Misc CSA Officials

The pre-war activities of Pierre Soule with European revolutionaries like Mazzini and Ledru-Rollin, the arrest of D. C. Lowber and others during the war

3

Civil War--South--Misc Officers

Includes materials on CPT Robert Tansill, the organization of the Kirkwood Rangers of General James Longstreet's scouting units, a printed history of the Old Bay Steamship Line out of Baltimore (employer of John and Isaac Suratt after the war), John Moncure Robinson.

4

Civil War--South--Provost Marshals

A list of provost marshals and their duty stations in Virginia, 1863, 1864.

4

Civil War--South--Quartermaster

A list of quartermasters in 1864, compendium of the duties of a quartermaster, look at some select quartermasters and their disbursements.

3

Civil War--South--Signals

Two mss of signals systems in King George County, Va., and a xerox of Tidewater Tales of the Urquhart family, involved in the medical treatment of Booth after he was shot at Garrett's Farm.

4

Civil War--South--State Department

Records of various disbursing clerks of the Confederate State Department. Approx. 1 inch of materials.

4

Civil War--South--Virginia

More on Confederates paroled at Bowling Green; a map of Jefferson County, Va; Map and article on the burning of Richmond; and various xeroxes on Richmond during the war including a list of city officials.

4

Clergy

A roster of Confederate Chaplains and excerpts from a book by Chester Forrester Dunham, The Attitude of Northern Clergy toward the South.

4

Come Retribution

Correspondence between the authors and the Press of the University of Mississippi, between the authors themselves, between the authors and numerous individuals, interviews, criticisms, etc. Can give the researcher an excellent idea of the mechanics of writing and publishing a book.Three linear inches of items.

5

Conally, Thomas, MP

Brief diary of an English member of Parliament who made a fact-finding trip into the Confederacy in March-April 1865 and witnessed the fall of Richmond. He mentions several persons and places which figured in the operations of the Confederate secret service. Comments by James O. Hall.

4

Confederate Agents, Covert

Four and three quarter linear inches of materials on agents of the Secret Service, ranging from the historically more known LT Charles Cawood to the rarely mentioned Milburn Brothers, and including the Indiana Treason Trials of Copperhead supporters of Confederate "terror" projects in 1864 and 1865.

4

Confederate Army Units

Nineteen manila folders of basic information on Confederate army Virginia units from the Northern Neck plus Mosby's Partisan Rangers. Included are 1 Va Inf; 8 Va Inf; 10 Va Cav; 9 Va Cav; 11 Va Inf; 12 Va Cav; 12 Va Inf; 14 Va Cav; 15 Bn Va Cav; 15 Va Inf; 17 Va Inf; 21 Va Inf; 21 Bn Va inf; 24 Va Cav; 25 Bn Va Inf; 30 Va Inf; 40 Va Inf; 43 Bn Va Cav (Mosby's); 55 Va Inf.

5

Confederate Covert Ops

A linear inch and a quarter of raw materials and speculations (some from a symposium on military intelligence and a power point presentation by Tidwell, Hall and Gaddy outlining Come Retribution) on Confederate intelligence operations that became the basis for Come Retribution. Includes H. V. Canan, "Confederate Military Intelligence," from Maryland Historical Magagine, and Curtis Carroll Davis, "Companions of Crisis: The Spy Memoir as a Social Document," from Civil War History.

5

Confederate Covert Ops--Aeronautical

A collection of newspaper articles and booklets on the use of balloons during the Civil War, including Joseph Jenkins Cornish, The Air Arm of the Confederacy, and Elden Billings' typescript, "Aeronautics in the Civil War: A Critical Analysis."

5

Confederate Covert Ops--Other

Many schemes tried against Union armies and positions, such as attack on Camp Douglas Prison in Chicago, destruction of steamboats on western rivers, and some schemes that are not fully explained, but in which originators were permitted to raise a company to attempt them, without Confederate pay or support. Also has Tidwell's mss article, "Confederate Covert Action."

5

Confederate Covert Ops--Shipping/Naval

Documents relating to the Ship Burning campaign on western waters, the destruction of the Sultana, and a proposal by John Yates Beall to attack Yankee shipping on the Chesapeake and the Great Lakes.

5

Confederate Covert Ops--Signal Corps

The most important part of this file, which includes analysis of the troops from the Northern Neck guarding the Secret Line and vouchers from the Confederate treasury relating to possible secret service activity, is a copy of Executive Order # 2, signed by U.S. Secretary of War Stanton, naming suspected Confederate signal corps operatives along the Secret Line at Pope's Creek in Maryland.

5

Confederate Psy-war

Several documents on Psychological warfare: An alleged conversation between John Wilkes Booth and Jefferson Davis; reception of Lincoln's death among Southerners; A letter from LG Richard and other Confederate officers extending sympathy for the death of Lincoln; and a piece on The Index, a Confederate newspaper published in England.

5

Confederate Sec War

Containing an illustration of the Mechanic's Institute at Richmond, home of the War Department; and several documents relating to daily operations of the War Department plus a list of clerks.

5

Confederate Secret Service

Two manila folders containing Tidwell's mss documents "Confederate Secret Service"; Tidwell's "Chronology of Events Possibly Related to Confederate Secret Service Activities" plus notes; a Chronology for Come Retribution; Tidwell's article, "Before the Wilderness: What Lee Knew," Columbiad, 98-108; David Gaddy's "Lee's Use of Intelligence from the Surratt Courier, January 1996; Charles E. Taylor, "The Signal and Secret Service of the Confederate States," from the Confederate Veteran, XL, No. 8, Aug 1932, pp. 302-41.

5

Confederate State Department

A list of Rebel agents to foreign countries, a document entitled "Keys to Cyphers", and more mundane matters on Jefferson Davis being inaugurated as Provisional President in 1861.

5

Conover, Sanford

A linear inch and quarter of materials on the notorious Charles Dunham, AKA Conover, whose duplicitous testimony at the trial of the Conspirators destroyed any chance of blaming the Confederacy for conceiving of and backing the kidnapping and assassination attempts on Lincoln. Includes trial testimony and criticisms, and comments by Hall and Tidwell.

5

Conrad, Thomas N.

Three and a half linear inches of material on the famous Confederate agent, who scouted the feasibility of undertaking some kind of operation against the person of Lincoln. Includes Conrad's own story, and correspondence between Tidwell and John Stanton and James O. Hall on Conrad.

5

Cooper, GEN Samuel

Adjutant General of the Confederate Army and its highest ranking general officer, Cooper's Inspector & Adjutant General's office was in charge of much secret service operation early in the way. File contains multiple copies in long-hand and typescript of a chronology of Cooper's military career, US before the war and CS during the conflict.

6

Copperheads

Two linear inches of materials on the Indiana Treason Trials, Lamdin P. Milligan who was sentenced to death for Copperhead activities against the Union war effort and released later in an important U.S. Supreme Court Case, overall histories of Copperhead movement during the Civil War, and a look at Copperhead activities in individual Northwestern states like Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and even in the District of Columbia.

6

Correspondence

Five and a half linear inches of letters and notes between Tidwell and others concerning every topic under the sun and the publication of his two books and numerous articles.

6

Cox, Fleet W.

From the 40 Va Inf, lost an eye at Chancellorsville, a native of Westmoreland County and part of a planned sea-borne attack on Point Lookout prison that never came off. Some papers and letters to his sweetheart.

6

Cox, Robert Edwin

One and a quarter linear inches of papers relating to this Georgian who lived at St. Catharines in Ontario, had contact with C. C. Clay, and moved to the US and made some contact with John Wilkes Booth around Poughkeepsie, N.Y., in Booth's travels between Canada and Boston in fall 1864.

6

Crenshaw, CPT Edward

Typescript of his diary from the Alabama Historical Quarterly, part of the Confederate Navy and involved in the sea-borne attempt to free Confederate POWs held at Point Lookout.

6

Crookshanks, John

Cruikshanks or Crookshanks had a son William, a resident of St. Mary's County, Md., who was arrested for assault with intent to kill and sentenced to several years in prison. Came up in connection with Tidwell's genealogical investigations into relations of Maj Boyle, provost marshal at Gordonsville.

6

Dade, F. B.

More items on Frances Dade, a Confederate operative in King George County along the Potomac.

6

Dade, Ruth, Conrad

Relating to the setting of mines in the Potomac, Ruth took them up on his RF & P Railroad, Frances Dade and Thomas Conrad were to use the mines to stop Federal activity on the river, but both were arrested at the end of the war.

6

Dahlgren's Raid

Typescripts and xeroxes of a half dozen articles concerning the Raid on Richmond in early 1865. Includes David George's "Black Flag Warfare" a seminal article on all such behind the lines operations.

6

Davidson, Hunter

A specialist in electronic discharge of submarine torpedoes for the Confederate Navy, Hunter Davidson is the subject of a series of letters between Tidwell and James O. Hall and Charles Jacobs, who did futher research on Davidson and found nearly a dozen mentions of him in Civil War literature.

6

Davis John F.

Service record of LT Davis of G coy, 11 Vet Res Corps (USV) at Elmira Prison camp and on much detached duty.

6

Davis, Jefferson

A linear inch and a half of documents and xeroxes of the papers of Jeffeson Davis, illustrating his desire to keep everything about certain Civil War secret service-type matters forever quiet.

6

Davis, S. B.

Xerox copy of Davis' Escape of a Confederate Officer from Prison; What He Saw at Andersonville; How He Was Sentenced to Death and Saved by the Interposition of President Abraham Lincoln (1892)--He met Harry Brogden of Confederate Secret Service and volunteered to take messages to Canada.

6

Destructionists

A somewhat misnamed folder that contains an early outline of Tidwell's April '65 under the working title, "Spring of '65," a few letters between Tidwell and Randall Haines over George N. Sanders, a life history of CPT Zere McDaniel who sent the men assigned to blow up the City Point Union supply depot in 1864, and a copy of the "Hotel Burners" part of the plot to burn New York City.

6

Eaton, Peggy

A magazine article history of Margaret O'Neal Timberlake Eaton, wife of Andrew Jackson's secretary of war. Thesis is that John C. Calhoun was driven from Jackson's support and became an outsider rather than an insider who might have healed the quarrels between North and South and avoided the Civil War.

6

Elliott, Wyatt M.

VMI class of 1842, part of the Richmond City Bn, captured at Sayler's Creek just before Appomattox and imprisoned at Johnson's Island. Part of the establishment of the Richmond Whig newspaper. Organized the 15 Bn Va Inf.

7

Elmira Prison Camp

Four linear inches of materials in two folders on Elmira Prison, where John Surratt, Jr., was believed to be scouting for a planned prison break in 1865. Contains copies of Tidwell's mss. on the camp, materials on Confederate prisoners, loyal areas between Elmira and Williamsport, Union administration, camp plans, etc. A pending project when Tidwell died.

7

Emack Family

From Beltsville area in Maryland, the Emacks were ardent supporters of the Confederacy, neighbors to Rose Greenhow, and Duff Green. The son stabbed a Yankee guard who had arrested him and fled to the Confederacy, the father probably sent Northern newspapers to Richmond for intelligence purposes. Two linear inches of materials including the family tree, pictures, typescripts and xerox copies of original documents such as military records, other records, and a mss by Tidwell, "The Emack Family."

7

England, Activity In

Copies of the Confederate propaganda newspaper, The Index, biography of British reform politician Spencer Walpole, and a letter from Patricia Wolfson to Tidwell on the British Southern Independence Association.

7

Episcopal

Xerox materials on the Episcopal Church and Seminaries in Virginia, which Tidwell saw as central to certain secret service activities.

7

Espionage

A bibliography on books involving espionage in the Civil War plus an organizational chart of how and what various governmental departments played in spying.

7

Ewell, LTG Richard S. and Benjamin S.

Several letters and documents relating to the general and his brother and numerous xeroxes of the Ewell papers from the College of William and Mary. Ewell commanded troops in the defense of Richmond in 1864-1865.

7

Ficklin--Finney

B. F. Ficklin (after he was booted out of VMI) and W. W. Finney were partners in the Pony Express on the frontier and Confederate agents who also traded in cotton for the Lincoln administration. Contains papers relating to their Confederate secret service activities, including the attempt to attack Johnson's Island in Lake Erie and free Confederate POWs held there.

7

Ford's Theater

Map of Booth's assassination of Lincoln and flight out of the theater, James O. Hall's newspaper article, "A Noted Author Explains the Mystery of Lincoln's Guard," plus Tidwell's mss notes on a presentation of Come Retribution at Ford's theater, June 25, 1998, plus communications with various persons about it.

7

Fowle, James H.

A mss from the Benj. Butler papers, LC on James H. Fowle, a Confederate Agent assigned to the Signals branch of the War Department and later served in the State Department under Judah P. Benjamin.

7

Garrett

Maps and sketches of Garrett's Farm and an inquiry as to what kind of barn Booth was burned out of.

7

Gatewood, Robert

A couple of pages of long-hand notes about Gatewood, an Episcopal clergyman, graduated from VMI in 1849, and an intellegence officer at Richmond.

7

Generals, C.S.A.

Notes on general officers promoted in the Fall of 1864, notes comparing promotion to general month by month during the war, and an envelope of picture portraits of general officers.

7

Gilmer, MG Jeremy

Letters concerning Gilmer, an engineering officer who, at the instigation of GEN P.G.T. Beauregrd took BG Gabriel Rains and torpedo equipment to sow subterra shells in front of MG W.T. Sherman's Union advance in North Carolina in 1865.

7

Gold

A list of treasury warrant requests for gold by date, 1862-1865.

7

Gordon, COL James

An effort to track the late Civil War career of Gordon. Actually an LTC, Gordon was captured at Ft. Fisher and later implicated in the Lincoln Assassination and fled to Canada.

7

Gorgas, BG Josiah

Xerox of an article by M. L. Brown, "Forgotten Hero of the Confederacy," about BG Josiah Gorgas, Chief or Ordnance, CSA.

7

Great Falls Route

A xerox article about a western route out of Washington, D.C., via the Great Falls of the Potomac.

7

Green, Dandridge Mercer

Green was from King George County, and the file contains pictures and newspaper articles tracing Tidwell's restoration of an old cabin on the property of Tidwell in King George County.

7

Green, Duff

An old Jacksonian newspaperman, Green was from Missouri, had connections with Thomas Hart Benton, and printed the United States Telegraph. At first a Jackson Democrat, Green later shifted to the Whigs over Jackson's opposition to Nullification and Secession. An ardent pro-Confederate supporter, Green was arrested and later fled to the Confederacy, where he tried to negotiate a peace between the US and CS in 1865. Numerous letters and typescripts of Green, his life and career.

7

Green, Thomas

Owner of a mansion southwest of the White House and a Confederate sympathizer who John Wilkes Booth thought trustworthy enough to hide a kidnapped Lincoln in his basement. Green provided much intelligence for Gov. Letcher of Va. early in the war. Three quarters of a linear inch of materials, including letters, extensive family connections (including Elizabeth Green Quesenberry who helped Booth and Herold escape), and several Alycon Trubey Pierce (Certified Geneaologist) reports.

7

Greenhow, Rose, and Early Activity

Papers on the Greenhow spy organization that became a part of Tidwell's April '65 book, pp. 57-77, includes letters and documents, location maps of her and other's homes in Washington, D.C., chronologies, and her arrest and companions at Old Capitol Prison.

7

Grenfell, George St. Leger

A typescript of Grenfell, who had a fantastic Civil War career under many guises and wound up at Ft. Jefferson with Mudd, Spangler, Arnold and O'Laughlen, where he died drowning in an escape attempt.

8

Harney, Thomas F.

One and a half linear inches of material concerning the torpedoman who was supposed to blow up the White House in 1865, but was captured instead. Includes letters of the time and between Tidwell and his researcher, Alycon Trubey Pierce, C.G., chronologies, documents and complied service records, and attempts to trace the elusive SGT Harney through the whereabouts of known associates.

8

Harris, Thomas A.

A Missouri General and Confederate Congressman, Harris was involved with the ship burning campaign that was an outgrowth of B. Sage and the Destructionists. Contains Tidwell's typescript "Ship Burning Campaign, and several letters among modern historians, hand-written notes, and xeroxes of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.

8

Harrison, H. T.

Known as Longstreet's spy, H. T. Harrison file contains James O. Hall's typescript, "The Spy Harrison," letters and documents of the times, and John Bakeless, article, "James Harrison: Rebel Enigma."

8

Hawes-Coleman

Extensive genealogical study of the relationship between the two families, Hawes the Confederate governor of Kentucky and the other, one of Mosby's escorts to find Booth.

8

Hawks, Arthur

Popular magazine and lecturer, Hawks saw John Brown hanged and served on the staff of Stonewall Jackson. Mostly xeroxes.

8

Health in America

Xerox of a guide for health in camp for soldiers, 142pp.

8

Hebb, John W.

Louisiana soldier who became a signalman and was disparaged by Harry Brogden.

8

Herold, David

Xerox of Herold's statement (41 pp.) plus a cassette tape of the same by John Brennan, and his lawyers argument for clemency (47 pp.).

8

Hines, Thomas H.

Noted spy and secret service agent from Kentucky who was prominent in the Northwest Conspiracy to attack Union prisons and free Confederate POWs, written of in Horan's Confederate Agent. Numerous letters and documents from the Filson Club, plus a Civil War Confederate box code.

8

Hinrichs, Oscar

Testified at the Conspirator's Trial, a letter to Tidwell from John Stanton, and Hinricks own lengthy 100 page tale.

8

Hogan, L. T.

Just one page letter from Alycon Trubey Pierce, C.G., saying that she will continue to search for Hogan's military record. Pierce later found his record as a deserter from the 7 Ala Inf.

8

Hooe

Dr. Hooe lived at Barnesfield, King George County, Va., and was burned out by Union Navy, June 25, 1861 whereupon he moved to Waterloo near mouth of Chotank Creek.

8

Hospitals, CSA

Seven xerox pages on hospitals in Richmond.

8

Howard, F. K.

Xerox of his "Fourteen Months in American Bastilles."

8

Howell, Augustus S.

Letters and documents relating to Gus Howell plus a picture of his still-standing tavern in Piscataway.

8

Hunter, R. T. M.

Excerpt of Richard Randall Moore's "In Search of a Safe Government: A Biography of R. M. T. Hunter of Virginia."

8

Hyams

About a St. Albans-type raid into US from Canada.

8

Irish

From Army Magazine, on the Irish in America, soldiers and Molly-McGuires in Pennsylvania coal mine strikes.

8

Jackson, LTG T. J.

Miscellaneous communiques from Jackson and James Murfin's "Stonewall Jackson' Cypher," from Blue-Gray Magazine.

8

Jett, Willie

Willie Jett's story of assisting Booth and Herold, plus numerous xeroxes of Jett's life and career after the war.

2

John Brown

Review of Edw. J. Renehan, The Secret Six: The True Tale of the Men who conspired with John Brown.

8

Johnston, GEN Joseph E.

Jim Reed's newspaper article on General Johnston's First Surrender to MG William T. Sherman, in which he got political terms for Reconstruction later revoked by U.S. Sec of War Stanton.

8

Jones, J. B.

Excerpts from Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary.

8

Jones, Thomas A.

Miscellaneous documents, some of the time and some modern, some genealogy and Jones, J. Wilkes Booth.

8

Kane, George P.

Letters between Tidwell and James O. Hall, and various matters relating to George . Kane, Baltimore Chief of Police , arrested, fled to Canada upon release, and a Confederate agent. Also some notes on Patrick Charles Martin, John C. Thompson.

8

Kean, R. G. H.

Excerpts from Kane's diary, Inside the Confederate Government.

8

Kemper

A list of officers serving under MG James Kemper.

8

Kennon, Beverly

Letters between Tidwell, John Brennan, and James O. Hall, various documents on Kennon's life and career as the Confederate top torpedoman, who, in league with Thomas Nelson Conrad, mined the Potomac to protect Rebel signal posts, and Tidwell's mss, "Torpedoes in the Potomac!"

8

Kent State University

Correspondence between Tidwell and Kent State University Press, and two mss copies of Tidwell's article, "Confederate Expentitures for Secret Service."

8

King George County

A quarter of an inch of items including xerox of "Historic Northern Neck of Virginia," letter from John Stanton on organizing King George County Historical Society, several maps of part of the county, several items on the life of Charles H. Cawood, who kept a Confederate signal post there during the war.

8

Lee GEN R. E.

A linear inch of documents relating to Lee's interest in Canadian operations and the Campaign of 1865, i.e., the evacuation of Richmond, joining with Johnston in NC, and defeating Sherman before Grant could catch up.

8

Lee, BG E. G.

About two linear inches of materials on the man who was sent to reorganize the Canadian effort of the Confederate Secret Service. Includes orders and correspondence to and from Lee, several xerox articles of Lee's life and Alexandra Lee Levin's seminal article on Lee, and numerous letters between Tidwell and various persons interested in Lee.

8

Lee, MG Fitzhugh

Several pages detailing Lee's Civil War career.

8

Lee, MG G. W. C.

Several xeroxes of Lee's career late in the war when he commanded at Chaffin's Bluff (includes a map of the bluff) and created the security force that was to guard the secret line from Union interference during the plots to kidnap Lincoln.

8

Lee's H.Q.

A listing of Lee's staff and how it changed during the war, list of scouts and spies, and a lengthy collection of documents illustrating how the staff used intelligence during the war with emphasis in 1864 and 1865.

8

Letcher, Gov. John

Instrumental in setting up the first spy and intelligence networks on Virginia early in the war, Letcher's role was deemed critical in Come Retribution (Chs. 2 and 3) and April '65 (chs. 2 and 3).

9

Lincoln

A linear inch of materials in two manila folders, mostly xeroxes of modern interpretations of various parts of Lincoln's Life and death, several seminar presentations, and most importantly, William Hanchett's mss, "Lincoln's Assassination as a Military Necessity."

9

Longuemare, Emile

Several documents on the life of Longuemare, an important Confederate agent out of St. Louis, genealogy, graduating class of 1851-52 of St. Louis University, etc.

9

Loomis, Mahlon

Selection from Dictionary of American Biography of Loomis' life. He was an experimenter in electric batteries of the kind possibly used during the Civil War, although his bio gives no hint at this.

9

Lucas, D. B.

Papers detailing the activities of Lucas, one of BG E. G. Lee's assistants in Canada, who also interrogated Union prisoners at Libby prison in Richmond, and was a militray secretary to GOV Wise of Virginia. He had much to do with John Yates Beall, the Confederate agent operating out of Canada, and wrote a memoir of Beall after he was executed.

9

Maddox, J. H.

Made first proposal (included in this file) of the secret line between Richmond and points north. Also several communiques from the Union Army of the Potomas HQ as to stopping activity along the line.

9

Magruder, G. A., et al.

G. A. Magruder was GEN John Magruder's brother who lived in Canada. A woman, identified as the daughter of GEN Magruder, CSA, was allegedly the carrier of dispatches to Canada according to the papers.

9

Maine

Anchored by the book, Mason P. Smith, Confederates Down East: Confederate Operations in and Around Maine, this file emphasizes the attempt to raid the Bank in Calais, Me., much like the one in St. Albans, Vt. Xeroxes of articles and many letters between Tidwell and James O. Hall.

9

Map Data

Effort to construct a map from Fredericksburg to Richmond, emphasizing the estuaries of the various tidal rivers.

9

Maps

A collection of maps of tidewater Virginia, pro-Confedeate sympathizers in Pennsylvania by county, and those used in Come Retribution.

9

Martin, Patrick Charles

A collection of the shipping adventures of the fabled sea captain and Alexander Keith, his business partner. Martin, who met with John Wilkes Booth in Canada, gave him letters of introduction to influential pro-Confederates in Southern Maryland, drowned in a storm while setting off to run the blockade with Booth's theatrical wardrobe.

9

Maryland

Xeroxes on Maryland units in the Confederacy, GEN Bradley's plan to raid Point Lookout POW camp, the Maryland Line, the Baltimoreans attempt to seize Lincoln in 1861 and the Battle of Mechanicsville, Md., where Union cavalry scattered LT Garland Smith's command, sent to find and escort Booth and Herold.

9

Mason

Information on Enoch Wellford Mason and Charles Mason, both couriers for the Confederate Army in King George County, Virginia. E. W. Mason ferried over the Rappahannock with Booth and Herold and the three Confederate cavalrymen, all of whom had been detailed to hie Booth along safely. Mason went on ahead to contact Mosby.

9

Masons--Freemasons

Article by Richard Brookhiser on the history of early freemasonry in the United States and book by Allen E. Roberts on Freemasonry during the Civil War.

9

Maury, Matthew F.

One half linear inch of materials on Maury, a noted naval mapmaker and geographer who sided with the Confederacy and was in favor of using the new torpedo (mine) technology and submarines to sink Union ships. Many xeroxes from the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies. Also a sketch of Maury's career in the Confederate service, Charles Lee Lewis' Biography, and Ivan Musicant article on Roanoke Sound and Maury's interest there.

9

McCalla, John Moore, Jr.

A Washington denizen of the social scene, who had many contacts with pro-Confederate Sympathizers. Excerpts from his Journal and a letter of the period.

9

McRae, Colin

McRae was interested in a volunteer navy, that was paid by booty seized, and submitted a bill for such to Confederate Congress. Worked out of SEC ST Benjamin's office. His proposal is detailed.

9

Military Forms

Various governmental forms from a multitude of departments, how to obtain individual pardon after the Civil War, Treasury warrants, discharge papers, quartermaster receipts, etc.

9

Military Units

Various collections of units mustered in from many states, mostly Virginia.

9

A file of photos and another of a massive report from Alycon Trubey Pierce, CG, with no real relevance to other files, a Biographical Directory of the American Congress, and Belle Boyd's name on the St. Lawrence Hotel register in Montreal.

9

Money Trail

A linear inch and a half of materials on the way the Confederate Secret Service was financed. Mostly money vouchers and warrants and used in Chapter 1 of April '65 and Chapter 8 of Come Retribution.

9

Montgomery, Richard

Montgomery's testimony at the Trial of the Conspirators and correspondence between Tidwell, Hall and Hanchett on Montgomery.

9

Montreal

Xerox photos of spots in Montreal of interest to the Confederate researcher.

9

Moore, MG Patrick T.

Xerox of Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies relating to the commander of one of the defense units at Richmond in 1865 working on cooperation with MG G. W. C. Lee's command.

9

Morgan, MG John H.

Papers and an article relating to the famous Confederate cavalry raider, John Hunt Morgan.

9

Morris, Augusta H.

From the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, an interception of letters sent out of Old Capitol Prison by Miss Morris AKA MRS Augusta Mason.

9

Mosby, COL John S

About four linear inches in 6 manila folders of information on all aspects of Mosby, his life and career and his Partisan Rangers, who Tidwell saw as key in signals efforts and the last days of the Confederacy. One of the more interesting is the fact that W.D. Newbill, a neighbor of the Garretts where Booth was shot, was a Mosby man tasked with the job of getting Booth and Herold to Mosby and safety. The Yankees moved first, however.

9

Moses, Raphael

Working draft in long-hand from James O. Hall about Moses, one of GEN Longstreet's staff at Gettysburg.

10

Mudd, DR Samuel A.

A linear inch and three-quarters of material on "Booth's doctor." Contains testimony from the original Trial of the Conspirators to the modern efforts to exhonorate Mudd, including testimony and letters and newspaper and historical magazine articles pro and con. Military reports and correspondence of the hunt for Booth, and one on the Purnell Legion, a Union unit from Maryland. Also a piece by James O. Hall on the guerrilla Boyle, whom Mudd allegedly feared for no reason.

9

Munson Hill

A series of xeroxes about the key Confederate signals station early in the war.

10

National Geographic

Contains the April 1961 National Geographic Magazine article on the Civil War.

10

Neely, McGinley M.

Military record of Neely from the 16 Kan Cav, who later became police chief of Kansas City.

10

Newspapers

Reproductions of various newspapers from the Civil War era.

10

Niagara

Maps of the railroads around the Falls area and the registers of hotels in the region.

10

Nitre and Mining Service, CSA

Two small pieces on valuable minerals like coal and nitre to the Confederate war effort.

10

Norris, MAJ William

Xeroxes of David W. Gaddy's," William Norris and the Confederate Signal and Secret Service," and W. Thomas Smith, "Confederate Secret Service Disc," and excerpt from David Homer Bates, Lincoln in the Telegraph Office.

10

Northern Neck

That part of Virginia between the Potomac and the Rappahhanock, the Northern Neck was key area in the pursuit of Booth and Herold. Contains Union correspondence and a personal account of COL Walter Phelps, Jr., a Union officer who served in operations in the Northern Neck.

10

O'Beirne, James R

O'Beirne was a federal provost marshal who was the first to discover that Booth and Herold were South of the Potomac. Contains three-eights of a linear inch of newspaper articles, correspondence and orders of his pursuit of Booth in Southern Maryland and King George County, Virginia.

10

O'Laughlen, Michael

Three pages of information on Mike and William O'Laughlen and Mike's role in the Lincoln kidnap plot.

10

Old Capitol Prison

Xerox of James I. Robertson's article, "Old Capitol: Eminence to Infamy," morning reports of the guard, essentially who is under arrest and the malefactor's alleged crimes.

10

Otey Battery

Artillery battery of a VMI cadet who proved to have loose standards of conduct and the letters from his family defending him.

10

Ould, Robert

Ould was Confederate Commissioner for Prisoner Exchange, and the file contains letters and orders and lists of exchanged prisoners.

10

Owens, James

Employee of Austin L. Adams who told the Federals that Booth and Herold stayed at Adams' Tavern in Newport, Md., during part of the time they were supposed to be in the woods nearby.

10

Palmer, J. W.

John Williamson Palmer was a Confederate agent unknown to history until 1993. Includes David W. Gaddy's article, on Palmer in the Maryland Historical Magazine, Summer 1988.

10

Parr, D. Preston

A Confederate agent out of Baltimore who dealt in fine Chinaware, Parr hired Louis Paine while he awaited Booth's Lincoln kidnap plot to develop. Includes a genealogy of the Parr family, and reports of the Union provost marshal on Parr's activity.

10

Parr, H. A

Typescript of John M. Hyson, "Portrait of a Dentist: Henry A. Parr," who was a Confederate agent out of Tennessee who operated out of Canada and captured several Union cargo ships on the high seas. Contain much genealgy and Hyson's publication in the Journal of Dentistry.

10

Partisans

Contains the Confederate Partisan Ranger laws and much on Naval Partisans operating in the Chesapeake. Also, Russ McClelland, "'We were Enemies': Pennsylvania and Virginia Guerrillas," on the McNeill Rangers.

10

Passes--Richmond

Lists of passes issued at Richmond by the Confederate government.

10

Pierce, et al.

F. W. Pierce was the largest landholder in the U.S., primarily through his properties in Texas. He had some connection to C. C. Clay, a Confederate Commissioner in Canada in the Civil War. Most of these documents have to do with efforts to connect Pierce to Clay and through him to Booth. All were unsucessful.

10

Point Lookout Prison

The largest federal prison for Confederate POWs by the end of the war, this contains a xerox of an article, "Prison Camps in Maryland."

10

Postal Service

Holds DR Stefan Jaronski, "A Postal History of the Army of Northern Virginia," and a few miscellaneous documents.

10

Potomac River Flotilla

Contains chronologies, maps, ship logs, timelines, and articles of the effort of the Potomac River Flotilla to stop Confederate smugglers, and the booklet, "Monitors of the U.S. Navy."

10

Powell, Lewis Thornton (Paine)

Includes Powell's defense statement through his lawyer at the Conspiracy Trial, his refugee papers, records in Old Capitol Prison for Powell as Kinchloe, and modern-day letters between Tidwell, James O. Hall and Betty Ownsby.

10

POW--Union

Holds chronologies, lists of prisoners, tales of individual prisoners, lists of U.S. prisoners who enlisted in the Confedeate army, and interrogations.

10

Prisons

Tales of prisoners, chronologies of the prison system development, correspondence relative to prisons in the South, some photos, for about a linear inch of documents.

10

Private List

The private list was of visitors to Libby Prison. Many documents of names.

10

Richards, A. C.

The booklet by Gary R. Planck, The Lincoln's Assassination's Forgotten Investigator: A. C. Richards.

10

Richmond Sentinel Notes

Notes taken by Tidwell on his examination of the files of the Richmond Sentinel during the war on many varied topics.

10

Richmond, Evacuation of

A linear inch and a half of documents relating to the evacuation of Richmond in 1865. Includes treasury warrants, orders, correspondence, eyewitness accounts, peace negotiations, troop movements, and hints that everyone knew it was coming months ahead, which fits Tidwell's thesis that there was a plan for Lee to abandon Richmond in 1865, join Johnston in N.C., and keep on fighting.

11

Sanders, George N.--Documents and Correspondence

One of the premier Confederate agents operating out of Canada, this file contains materials in two folders. This one is on his operations, philosophy of revolution, his contacts in North America and Europe, as well as correspondence of the time and more modern letters between Tidwell, James O. Hall, Randall Haines, and William Hanchett.

11

Sanders, George N.--Xerox Articles

Several seminal articles on Sanders are included as xeroxes: Randall Haines, "In the Shadow of John Wilkes Booth," an excerpt (chapter 9) from his study of Sanders' life; Verlyn William Alt, "Eisenchmil's Question"; Verlyn William Alt, "George N. Sanders and the Lincoln Murder"; and a typescript of series of notes by Ault on Sanders' life and Philosophy of Revolution and Democratic Government.

11

Schubert, Joseph

Xerox of Schubert's My Life in Rebel Prisons.

11

Scott, John

Two items: One a life of Scott, a Scot living in Virginia and organizer of the Black Horse Troop before the war, which provided security at John Brown's hanging, and served in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the war, and later on the staff of GEN George Pickett.

11

Secret Service Record Book

Accounts of Confederate Agents Jacob Thompson, James Holcomb, diplomats James Mason and John Slidell, mss "Confederate Expenditures for Secret Service" by Tidwell, corrspondence between Tidwell and several research assistants, and xerox of Laws and Joint Resolutions of the Confederate Congress.

11

Secret Service, CSA

This file has a collection of several mss and published Tidwell articles and associated documents.

11

Sherman, Charles K.

Union correspondence on the arrest and holding of Sherman (one of the leaders of the National Volunteers, a politico-military group in Washington, D.C.), the denying of his exchange as a prisoner and its later acceptance.

11

Signal Corps (1)

There are four massive folders on the Confederate Signal Corps, this one containing materials on the home unit for secret service operations, including the location of signal stations.

11

Signal Corps (2)

Codes and cyphers from the Civil War, xeroxes of correspondence and orders, and a biography of telegrapher David Bates who served in Lincoln's telegraph office.

11

Signal Corps (3)

Many issues of the Signal Corps magazine The Signal Cypher.

11

Signal Corps (4)

Much on John Mosby signal stations in Fauquier County and also the Valley (including maps) and how they enabled the Gray Ghost to communicate rapidly with GEN Lee and Richmond.

12

Slater, MRS Sarah Antoinette Gilbert

Xerox of James O. Hall's "The Lady in the Veil."

12

Smith, CAPT William A.

Smith was a VMI graduate asssigned to the Trans-Mississippi Department as a staff officer. The documents include a brief career timeline, and communications involving Smith.

12

Smith, Channing

Letter from Smith to MG J.E.B. Stuart

12

Smith, LT Garland

One and a half linear inches of materials on Smith who was from G Coy, 43 Va Cav, a Mosby Raider, and who took a detachment into Maryland in April 1865 to guide and proviode military protection to Confederate agents such as Stringfellow, Harney and ultimately Booth and Herold, escaping via the Secret Line. His unit fought Federal Cavalry at Mechanicsville, Md., and scattered to their homes afterward. Contains correspondence, information on the military units in Maryland and Union ships in the Potomac, paroles of the 43 Va Cav, map, mss by Tidwell, "The Garland Smith Caper," and lengthy correspondence between Tidwell, David W. Gaddy and James O. Hall over the matter.

12

Soule, Pierre

A xerox of Amos Ettinger's book on Pierre Soule, Confederate minister to France and Spain and an expansionist politician for the Democratic party in the 1850s connected to the Ostend Manifesto and the forcible annexation of Cuba.

12

Source Notes

Contains three and a half linear inches of a bibliography of sources of documents and books, instructions on how to conduct a Confederate name search in federal records, and numeous examples of this in Tidwell's inimitatable handwriting.

11

St.Lawrence Hotel Register

Lists of names of possible Confederate agents who came to Canada. Besides the St. Lawrence Hotel at Montreal, it has some materials on hotels around St. Catharines and Niagara Falls, and how Canadian Confederates checked on the registers, looking for recently arrived contacts

12

Statutes, 1861-1862

Xerox copies of Confederate laws passed by Congress in the years mentioned and margin indicators to which affected secret service.

12

Stewart, LT/MAJ Charles H.

Complete service record of Stewart, K Coy, 2 Va Inf.

12

Surratt, John H., Jr.

One and a half linear inches of materials on Surratt, emphasizing his scouting of Elmira Prison, absenting him from the Lincoln assassination, flight to Europe, service in Papal Guard, betrayal, and trial.

12

Surratt, Mary

About a linear inch of materials on MRS Surratt, including several magazine/newspaper articles, Surratt Courier issues, genealogy of Surratt family, statement on her behalf in the matter of the assassination, trial and execution.

12

Tayloe, Benjamin/John

A linear inch and a half of materials on Benjamin and John Tayloe, includes much genealogy, military careers, property deeds, maps, census records, and correspondence between Tidwell and James O. Hall which illustrates how they worked in tandem to research a subject.

12

Taylor, Murray Forbes

Military career of Forbes, a staff officer in the Third Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, who encountered the Union cavalry searching for Booth and Herold in King George County, Va., plus an article on Forbes from the Confederate Veteran Magazine that appeared upon his death.

12

Telegraphic Connections

A series of letters between Laurie Verge and others and Robert L. Mills on why the telegraph was shorted out after the Lincoln assasination.

9

The Moon Sisters

About Lottie Moon, who left GEN Ambrose Burnside at the altar before the Civil War, and her family.

12

Tompkins, Christopher Q.

Contains Tompkins' "Memorandum of Events" on the retreat from Richmond, Correspondence between Tompkins and William Patterson Smith and various family members and friends. Tompkins was the manager of the Dover coal mines.

12

Torpedo, Courtney "Coal"

Documents on the Courtney Coal Torpedo, an explosive hidden in a fake lump of coal, one of which was found on Jefferson Davis' desk after the Fall of Richmond, Such a device was also suspected in the destruction of the steamboat Sultana near Memphis, carrying home released Union POWs after the war.

12

Torpedoes

Two linear inches of materials, mostly documents on Joseph W. Tucker and the attack on Union shipping on the Mississippi River, BG Gabriel Rains and the Torpedo Bureau, the blowing up of the Federal supply dump at City Point in 1864, SGT Harney and the plot to blow up the White House in 1865, and the Destructionists on the Mississippi River.

12

Townsend, George Alfred (GATH)

A modern newspaper article on Townsend and his monument in western Maryland to wartime newspapersmen of the Civil War.

12

Tradecraft

A few brief documents on how spying, i.e., "tradecraft," was conducted in the Civil War.

12

Train, George Francis

An advocate of the "Young America" movement to spread democracy to subvert the monarchies of Europe, Train was an acquaintance of George N. Sanders and went to Canada in early 1865 to work with him on the peace movement. Documents include correspondence between Tidwell, James O. Hall and Randall A. Haines over the matter, and a xerox copy of Train's book, My Life in Many States and Foreign Lands.

12

Trial of the Conspirators

Contains a xerox copy of Ben Pittman's record of the Trial of the Lincoln Conspirators and an unidentified xerox excerpt from another book, and article by Richard Sloan, "Life in the Prisoner's Dock during the Conspiracy Trial," drawing of the hoods used over the prisoners' heads, and an index of testimony by Richard Sloan.

12

Tucker, Beverly

Tucker was an ardent secessionist who wrote a novel in 1830s predicting the Civil War by 1850, served the Confederacy as a diplomat in Europe, returned to Richmond and was sent to Canada where he worked with George N. Sanders and Jacob Thompson and helped John H. Surratt get away to Europe. File contains much Tucker family history and a xerox of his novel, The Partisan Leader.

12

Turner, MAJ Thomas P.

Commandant of Libby Prison, Turner was worried about backlash against all prison commanders by the Federal government after the war. He was active in interrogating Union POWs for intelligence that might aid the Confederate war effort and slipping rebel agents among exchanged prisoners to get them north. Includes Turner's letter expressing worry, his military record, Union letter telling of inserted agents in the exchange process, a Turner family tree.

12

Union Army Units--8 ILLS CAV

As one of the prime units that patrolled the District of Columbia area against the forays of Mosby's Partisans and captured SGT Harney, upseting the plot to blow up the White House, the 8 ILLS CAV file has a regimental history by company.

12

Union Espionage

A linear inch of materials including correspondence between Tidwell and Edwin C. Fishel, an expert on Union espoinage and several xeroxes of Fishel's work, correspondence between Tidwell and James O. Hall, a William F. Hemmenway memoir on Union spying, some Union correspondence on spying, and a brief article on Union use of balloons for reconnaissance.

12

Virginia Military Institute--SUPT Francis Smith-- Letters Received, Indices

VMI sent this to Tidwell so that he could ask for specific information.

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Virginia Military Institute--SUPT Francis Smith-- Letters Sent, Indices

VMI sent this to Tidwell so that he could ask for specific information.

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Weichman, Louis

Correspondence from Weichman's co-workers and superior, MAJ D. H. L. Gleason at the War Department, complaining on Weichman's pro-Confederate utterances. Also a xerox of a 1911 historical article on the same.

12

Work in Progress

A catch-all file of miscellany, correpondence, and xeroxes that researchers ought to consult regardless of one's topic of interest.